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Introductions are usually % of the length of an a typical essay. Readers gain their first impressions of a paper from this section, so an effective introduction is.

I did not intend to practice medicine, although in medical school, and in my internship, I did all the things that were necessary to qualify me in that regard. I had opportunities along the way to drop the idea of medicine and go into science. At one point at the end of my first year of medical school, I received an opportunity to spend a year in research and teaching in biochemistry, which I did.

And at the end of that year, I was told that I could, if I wished, switch and get a Ph.

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And, I believe that this is all linked to my original ambition, or desire, which was to be of some help to humankind, so to speak, in a larger sense than just on a one-to-one basis. Concerning his last year of medical school Salk says: "I had an opportunity to spend time in elective periods in my last year in medical school, in a laboratory that was involved in studies on influenza.

The influenza virus had just been discovered about a few years before that. And, I saw the opportunity at that time to test the question as to whether we could destroy the virus infectivity and still immunize. And so, by carefully designed experiments, we found it was possible to do so. In , during his postgraduate work in virology, Salk chose a two-month elective to work in the laboratory of Thomas Francis at the University of Michigan.


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Francis had recently joined the faculty of the medical school after working for the Rockefeller Foundation , where he had discovered the type B influenza virus. According to Bookchin, "the two-month stint in Francis's lab was Salk's first introduction to the world of virology —and he was hooked. In , Salk became ambitious for his own lab and was granted one at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , but the lab was smaller than he had hoped and he found the rules imposed by the university restrictive. He asked Salk to find out if there were more types of polio than the three then known, offering additional space, equipment and researchers.

For the first year he gathered supplies and researchers including Julius Youngner , Byron Bennett, L. James Lewis, and secretary Lorraine Friedman joined Salk's team, as well.

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After successful tests on laboratory animals, on July 2, , assisted by the staff at the D. Watson Home for Crippled Children, Salk injected 43 children with his killed-virus vaccine. A few weeks later, Salk injected children at the Polk State School for the retarded and feeble-minded. In he tested the vaccine on about one million children, known as the polio pioneers.

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The vaccine was announced as safe on April 12, The project became large, involving million contributors to the March of Dimes, and 7 million volunteers. Salk's inactivated polio vaccine was the first vaccine for the disease; it came into use in Salk preferred not to have his career as a scientist affected by too much personal attention, as he had always tried to remain independent and private in his research and life, but this proved to be impossible.

There is no patent. Could you patent the sun? Salk served on the board of directors of the John D. MacArthur Foundation. Author Jon Cohen noted, "Jonas Salk made scientists and journalists alike go goofy. As one of the only living scientists whose face was known the world over, Salk, in the public's eye, had a superstar aura. Airplane pilots would announce that he was on board and passengers would burst into applause. Hotels routinely would upgrade him into their penthouse suites.

A meal at a restaurant inevitably meant an interruption from an admirer, and scientists approached him with drop-jawed wonder as though some of the stardust might rub off. For the most part, however, Salk was "appalled at the demands on the public figure he has become and resentful of what he considers to be the invasion of his privacy", wrote The New York Times , a few months after his vaccine announcement.

But "despite such very nice tributes", The New York Times wrote, "Salk is profoundly disturbed by the torrent of fame that has descended upon him. He talks continually about getting out of the limelight and back to his laboratory During a interview, 25 years later, he said, "It's as if I've been a public property ever since, having to respond to external, as well as internal, impulses. It's brought me enormous gratification, opened many opportunities, but at the same time placed many burdens on me. It altered my career, my relationships with colleagues; I am a public figure, no longer one of them.

People who meet him generally like him. He enjoys talking to people he likes, and "he likes a lot of people", wrote the Times.

In the years after Salk's discovery, many supporters, in particular the National Foundation, "helped him build his dream of a research complex for the investigation of biological phenomena 'from cell to society'. Salk believed that the institution would help new and upcoming scientists along in their careers, as he said himself, "I thought how nice it would be if a place like this existed and I was invited to work there.

In , Salk described his "ambitious plan for the creation of a kind of Socratic academy where the supposedly alienated two cultures of science and humanism will have a favorable atmosphere for cross-fertilization. Although he is distinctly future-oriented, Dr. Salk has not lost sight of the institute's immediate aim, which is the development and use of the new biology, called molecular and cellular biology , described as part physics, part chemistry and part biology.

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The broad-gauged purpose of this science is to understand man's life processes. There is talk here of the possibility, once the secret of how the cell is triggered to manufacture antibodies is discovered, that a single vaccine may be developed to protect a child against many common infectious diseases. There is speculation about the power to isolate and perhaps eliminate genetic errors that lead to birth defects. Salk, a creative man himself, hopes that the institute will do its share in probing the wisdom of nature and thus help enlarge the wisdom of man.

For the ultimate purpose of science, humanism and the arts, in his judgment, is the freeing of each individual to cultivate his full creativity, in whichever direction it leads. As if to prepare for Socratic encounters such as these, the institute's architect, Louis Kahn , has installed blackboards in place of concrete facings on the walls along the walks.

The New York Times , in a article celebrating the 25th anniversary of the Salk vaccine, described the current workings at the facility:. At the institute, a magnificent complex of laboratories and study units set on a bluff overlooking the Pacific, Dr. Salk holds the titles of founding director and resident fellow.

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His own laboratory group is concerned with the immunologic aspects of cancer and the mechanisms of autoimmune disease, such as multiple sclerosis , in which the immune system attacks the body's own tissues. In an interview about his future hopes at the institute, he said, "In the end, what may have more significance is my creation of the institute and what will come out of it, because of its example as a place for excellence, a creative environment for creative minds.

Francis Crick , codiscoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule, was a leading professor at the institute until his death in Academic Level. Estimated Date:. Estimated Price:. Order now. Online Custom Essay Writing Service. However, it has been always so hard to find that many of us had to write papers for academia by ourselves and get poor t is important to mention that cheap essay writing help has always been something modern students were looking for and were deeply interested in.

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