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Introductions are usually % of the length of an a typical essay. Readers gain their first impressions of a paper from this section, so an effective introduction is.

Or, they may adopt unhealthy eating and sleeping habits, smoke or abuse substances, as a consequence or response to their symptoms, contributing to worse health outcomes. People living with mental illnesses often face higher rates of poverty, unemployment, lack of stable housing, and social isolation. These social factors increase the vulnerability of developing chronic physical conditions. For example, people who are unable to afford healthier food options often experience nutritional deficiencies.

Poor nutrition is a significant risk factor for the development of heart disease and diabetes.

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Similarly, it is more difficult to be physically active when living in an unsafe or unhealthy neighbourhood. Some chronic physical conditions can cause high blood sugar levels and disrupt the circulation of blood, which can impact brain function. Experiences with disability can also cause distress and isolate people from social supports.

There is some evidence that the more symptomatic the chronic physical condition, the more likely that a person will also experience mental health problems. Mental and physical illnesses also share many symptoms, such as food cravings and decreased energy levels, which can increase food consumption, decrease physical activity and contribute to weight gain.

People living in poverty with chronic physical conditions are at risk of developing mental health problems and may face barriers to accessing mental health care, contributing to worsening mental health problems. Housing insecurity can be particularly stressful and lead to poorer mental and physical health. People living with the most common chronic physical conditions in Ontario also face worse mental health than the general population. Figure 1 illustrates the elevated rates of mood disorders in Ontarians with diabetes, heart disease, cancer, arthritis and asthma.

People with serious mental illnesses face a greater risk of developing a range of chronic physical conditions compared to the general population, impacting almost every biological system in the body. Higher rates of diabetes, heart disease and respiratory conditions in people with serious mental illnesses have been well-established by the research; the links to cancer are still emerging and preliminary findings vary depending on type of cancer.

Diabetes rates are significantly elevated among people with mental illnesses. Antipsychotic medications have been shown to significantly impact weight gain; obesity rates are up to 3. Conversely, people with diabetes have nearly twice the rate of diagnosed mental illnesses as those without diabetes.


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The biological impact of high blood sugar levels is also associated with the development of depression in people with diabetes. Left untreated, co-existing diabetes, poor mental health and mental illnesses can hinder self-care practices and increase blood sugar levels, contributing to worsening mental and physical health.

People with serious mental illnesses often experience high blood pressure and elevated levels of stress hormones and adrenaline which increase the heart rate.


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  6. Antipsychotic medication has also been linked with the development of an abnormal heart rhythm. These physical changes interfere with cardiovascular function and significantly elevate the risk of developing heart disease among people with mental illnesses. In Canada, women with depression are 80 percent more likely to experience heart disease than women without depression.

    Similarly, people with mental illnesses have up to a three times greater likelihood of having a stroke. Conversely, there are significantly elevated rates of depression among people with heart disease. It is three times more likely that a person with heart disease will experience depression when compared to people who do not have heart problems.


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    Co-existing heart disease and mental illness contribute to worse health status and higher health care utilization rates. Figure 1. Source: T. People with serious mental illnesses have a significantly increased likelihood of developing a range of chronic respiratory conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD , chronic bronchitis and asthma. People with mental illnesses have high smoking rates, due in part to historical acceptability of smoking in psychiatric institutions, the impact of nicotine on symptom control, and the positive social aspects of smoking.

    Social factors such as poverty, unstable housing, unemployment and social exclusion may also impact upon both smoking rates and the development of respiratory conditions, but there has been little research on this topic among people with serious mental illnesses. People living with chronic respiratory diseases experience significantly elevated rates of anxiety and depression. People who experience asthma attacks similarly have a greater likelihood of experiencing anxiety and panic disorders.

    In addition, some asthma medications have been demonstrated to alter mood.

    The research linking mental illness and cancer has yielded mixed results. Recent research has found significantly higher rates of cancer among people with schizophrenia than expected.

    Schizophrenia And Disorder Of Lifespan Development

    Many studies have found decreased rates of respiratory cancers among people with serious mental illnesses; it has been suggested that this lower risk may be linked with past institutionalization which may have protected people from environmental risks. People living with cancers face a higher risk of developing depression, due in part to high levels of stress, emotional upset, and changes in body image. For example, older women with breast cancer and a diagnosis of depression were significantly less likely to receive optimal treatment.

    Research has consistently found a lower rate of arthritis in people with serious mental illnesses than the general population. It has been previously suggested that schizophrenia may reduce the risk of developing arthritis due to genetics, the anti-inflammatory side effects of antipsychotic medications, and more sedentary lifestyles linked to institutionalization and illness. However, it has been argued that rates of arthritis may in fact be underreported in people with serious mental illnesses due to a reduced likelihood of reporting pain.

    By comparison, people with arthritis are at significantly elevated risk of developing mood and anxiety disorders. People with serious mental illnesses face many barriers to accessing primary health care. These barriers are complex and range from the impact of poverty on the ability to afford transportation for medical appointments to systemic barriers related to the way that primary health care is currently provided in Ontario.

    For example, people with mental illnesses who live in precarious housing may not have an OHIP card due to the lack of a permanent address or a safe place to store identification. Some physicians may also be reluctant to take on new patients with complex needs or psychiatric diagnoses, due to short appointment times or lack of support from mental health specialists.

    The stigma associated with mental illness also continues to be a barrier to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic physical conditions in people with mental illnesses. Schizophrenia is an impairment of the mind, in which there is an abnormality in the reality of everyday life, Hafiyudin, There are many different types of schizophrenia and different degrees of the disorder Better Essays words 1.

    The mental illness affects approximately 2. Schizophrenia works by tainting the mind with hallucinations, delusions, memory loss, and confusion, causing millions of Americans left mentally crippled and unstable WebMD - Better Schizophrenia targets the brain and in doing so, victims are emotionally, mentally, and physically changed.

    Schizophrenia And Psychosis And Lifespan Development Essay

    The media has a tendency to sensationalize people suffering from schizophrenia, often depicting them as violent and unruly. This paper will attempt to examine the relationship between schizophrenia and violence to see if there is any correlation. Additionally, this paper seeks to dispel any untrue notions about violence and schizophrenia. Literature Review As said by Comin Nunes, et al. Better Essays words 4. Schizophrenia is a disease involving the brain that cripples the brain, rendering it chronically and severely disabled. Schizophrenia causes people to suffer horrifying symptoms.

    Some of these symptoms include things such as people reading their minds, hearing voices inside of them, people trying to harm them, or even people trying to control their thoughts. Usually, most of these symptoms leave a person with schizophrenia feeling somewhat withdrawn and frightened It is said that there is more known information on cancer than there is on schizophrenia.

    Like many other mental illnesses, it is hard to know exactly what factor causes it and what treatment will help relieve the symptoms. Schizophrenia is a disease that is caused by different determinants and has a large number of signs and symptom, but there are ways to treat it.

    Experts think schizophrenia is caused by many factors First Schizophrenia can be seen as a series of random behaviors that make up a disorder. Schizophrenia can largely be based on the opinion of the clinician making the diagnosis. Secondly there is not concrete cause or way to diagnose schizophrenia. Causes could be environmental or genetic. Scientists are still working on finding what causes schizophrenia. Lastly some medication management has proven to be a barrier.

    Classification and diagnosis

    Side effects can be so severe that patients stop taking the medication Schizophrenia has always been a disorder shrouded in mystery. There have been many hypotheses from varying perspectives proposing different sources of causation for schizophrenia. Some of these hypotheses have considerable amounts of research, while some lack support This sounds pretty miserable, right. These are only a few of the symptoms that sufferers of schizophrenia face everyday.

    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating mental diseases in the world, those diagnosed may have disabling symptoms that make living a normal life nearly impossible. The National Institute of Mental Health defined schizophrenia as a "chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves.